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1997. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is an acute-phase protein. J. Clin. Invest. 99:2930–40 15. Smith MF Jr, Eidlen D, Brewer MT, Eisenberg SP, Arend WP, GutierrezHartmann A. 1992. Human IL-1 receptor antagonist promoter. Cell type-specific activity and identification of regulatory regions. J. Immunol. 149:2000–7 16. Smith MF Jr, Eidlen D, Arend WP, Gutierrez-Hartmann A. 1994. LPSinduced expression of the human IL-1 receptor antagonist gene is controlled by multiple interacting promoter elements.

Effect of Treatment in Animal Models of Disease The beneficial effects of administration of recombinant human IL-1Ra in many experimental animal models of disease are summarized in recent reviews (5–7). Table 2 contains an incomplete listing of some animal models where the delivery of exogenous IL-1Ra, usually intravenously, led to at least partial prevention or treatment of disease. A potential limitation to the therapeutic use of IL-1Ra protein is the necessity to administer large amounts. Up to 100- to 1000-fold amounts of IL-1Ra greater than the IL-1 agonists were necessary to inhibit biologic activities (153).

1994. A physical map of the region encompassing the human interleukin-1α, interleukin1β, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist genes. Genomics 19:382–84 22. Tarlow JK, Blakemore AIF, Lennard A, Solari R, Hughes HN, Steinkasserer A, Duff GW. 1993. Polymorphism in human IL-1 receptor antagonist gene intron 2 is P1: NBL/PLB P2: NBL/plb January 19, 1998 48 23. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 16:27-55. org by HINARI on 08/31/07. For personal use only. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 14:7 QC: NBL Annual Reviews AR052-02 AREND ET AL caused by variable numbers of an 86-bp tandem repeat.

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