By Meyer, Hurst, Gray, Lewis
The 5th variation keeps its completeness, updates the assurance of bipolar applied sciences, and complements the dialogue of bicmos. It offers a extra unified remedy of electronic and analog circuit layout whereas strengthening the insurance of cmos. The bankruptcy on non-linear analog circuits has been got rid of and bankruptcy eleven has been up-to-date to incorporate an operational amplifier instance. types for integrated-circuit lively units bipolar, mos, and bicmos integrated-circuit know-how single-transistor and multiple-transistor amplifiers present mirrors, energetic rather a lot, and references output phases operational amplifiers with single-ended outputs frequency reaction of built-in circuits suggestions frequency reaction and balance of suggestions amplifiers nonlinear analog circuits noise in built-in circuits absolutely differential operational amplifiers
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Additional resources for Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits
11. 11 Carrier concentrations in a saturated npn transistor. 12 Typical IC -VCE characteristics for an npn bipolar transistor. Note the different scales for positive and negative currents and voltages. but since VBC is now positive, the value of np (WB ) is no longer negligible. Consequently, changes in VCE with VBE held constant (which cause equal changes in VBC ) directly affect np (WB ). 31)], it is also proportional to [np (0) − np (WB )] from Fig. 11. Thus changes in np (WB ) directly affect the collector current, and the collector node of the transistor appears to have a low impedance.
The conductivity of this channel can be modulated by increases or decreases in the gate-source voltage. 138) The gate-source voltage VGS required to produce an inversion layer is called the threshold voltage Vt and can now be calculated. This voltage consists of several components. First, a voltage [2φf + (Qb /Cox )] is required to sustain the depletion-layer charge Qb , where Cox is the gate oxide capacitance per unit area. Second, a work-function difference φms exists between the gate metal and the silicon.
This result is reasonable because we know that the gate-to-channel voltage at the point where the channel disappears is equal to Vt by the deﬁnition of the threshold voltage. Therefore, at the point where the channel pinches off, the channel voltage is (VGS − Vt ). As a result, the average horizontal electric ﬁeld across the channel in pinch-off does not depend on the the drainsource voltage but instead on the voltage across the channel, which is (VGS − Vt ). 152) is no longer valid if VDS > VGS − Vt .