Download An Introduction to Surfactants by Tharwat F. Tadros PDF

By Tharwat F. Tadros

ISBN-10: 3110312123

ISBN-13: 9783110312126

Surfactants are floor energetic brokers, molecules that experience an important position in emulsions, suspensions, and foams. They locate common program in own care, cosmetics, prescription drugs, agrochemicals and the nutrition undefined. Their class, actual homes, part habit, their results and purposes are lined during this publication.

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Most commercially available PVA molecules contain 4– 12 % acetate groups. These acetate groups, which are hydrophobic, give the molecule its amphipathic character. On a hydrophobic surface such as polystyrene, the polymer adsorbs with preferential attachment of the acetate groups on the surface, leaving the more hydrophilic vinyl alcohol segments dangling in the aqueous medium. These partially hydrolyzed PVA molecules also exhibit surface activity at the o/w interface [25]. The most convenient polymeric surfactants are those of the block and graft copolymer type.

Small, Advan. Chem. , 84, 31 (1968). [20] D. G. Oakenfull and L. R. Fisher, J. Phys. , 82, 2443 (1978). [21] R. Zana, J. Phys. , 82, 2440 (1978). [22] J. D. Desai and I. M. Banat, Microbial production of surfactants and their commercial potential, Micobiol. Molec. Biol. Rev. 61, 47–64 (1997). [23] K. K. Guatam and V. K. Tyagi, Microbial surfactants; A review, J. Oleo. , 55, 155–166 (2006). [24] A. J. J. Straathof and P. ) Applied Biocatalysis, Harwood Academic, Amsterdam, 2000. [25] Th. Tadros, in: Novel Surfactants, K.

28 | 2 General classification of surfactants [13] [14] N. Schonfeldt, Surface Active Ethylene Oxide Adducts, Pergamon Press, USA, 1970. R. R. Zana and E. Alami, Gemini Surfactants, in: Novel Surfactants, K. ), Chapter 12, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003. [15] W. von Rybinsky and K. Hill, in: Novel Surfactants, K. ), Chapter 2, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003. [16] C. J. Drummond, C. Fong, I. Krodkiewska, B. J. Boyd and I. J. A. Baker, in: Novel Surfactants, K. ), Chapter 3, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003.

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