By Andrzej Nowicki Inst. of Fundamental Technological, Jerzy Litniewski, Tamara Kujawska
The overseas Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a different discussion board for complex study, masking new applied sciences, advancements, tools and theories in all components of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously for the reason that 1968. during the years the lawsuits volumes within the Acoustical Imaging sequence became a reference for state-of-the-art learn within the box. In 2011 the thirty first foreign Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was once held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. providing either a vast point of view at the state of the art in addition to in-depth study contributions by way of the experts within the box, this quantity 31 within the sequence includes a very good number of papers in six significant different types:
Biological and clinical Imaging
Physics and arithmetic of Acoustical Imaging
Transducers and Arrays
Nondestructive review and commercial Applications
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Extra resources for Acoustical Imaging: Volume 31
V. 2012 45 46 L. Cies´lik and J. Litniewski 1 Introduction In many countries, osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease. The clinical significance of it arises from the fractures that occur. Approximately 40% of postmenopausal women has osteoporotic bone fractures and approximately 20% of them are hip fractures which are most serious. This kind of fracture is associated with significant mortality (approximately 20%) because of stress of injury and surgery and accompanied complications .
This may be considered as a viscous liquid with inhomogeneous distributions of compressibility, mass density, viscosity and compressional loss factor . In general, certain properties, e. g. compressibility, are also frequency dependent . Moreover, nonlinear effects have to be accounted for. Wave propagation in tissue is thus governed by a complex system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. In order to derive manageable models suitable for imaging purposes, simplifications have to be made.
The measurements and calculations of trabecular bone attenuation and its dependence on frequency have been a main topic of many investigations. Most of them concerned research in vitro [2, 4, 12]. The in vivo investigations were related to attenuation measurements in heel bone and were carried out in transmission mode [6–8]. The measured in vitro mean BUA for heel bone were reported in the range from 2 to 21 dB∙cmÀ1∙MHzÀ1  while, the femoral bone attenuation measured in vitro ranged from 4 to 30 dB∙cmÀ1∙MHzÀ1 .